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  2. Introduction, Key concepts, Orientalism 14 items
    What is Edward Said seeking to do? What is the difference between Orientalism and Orientalists? How does knowledge of the Orient create the Orient (p. 40)? What does Said mean when he speaks of the ‘Oriental’? Is it ever possible to speak of something in a ‘pure’ way? Is there ‘objective knowledge’ and what does this mean? What is the ‘exotic’? What is the problem with saying something is ‘like’ something else (p. 67)? Does Said fall into the trap of Orientalism-in-Reverse, or Occidentalism?
    1. Required readings/viewings 4 items
      1. Introduction, IN: Orientalism - E. Said

        Chapter Essential Digitised under the CLA Digitisation Licence therefore only available to students on module RELU9R5

      2. Orientalism - Edward W. Said 2003

        Book Essential ‘Afterword to the 1995 Printing’ pp. 329-354; ideally also first section of chapter 1: ‘The Scope of the Oriental’ pp. 31-73.

    2. Recommended readings: 10 items
      1. Debating Orientalism - Elmarsafy, Ziad, Bernard, Anna, Attwell, David 2013 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended Read Robert Spencer, The war on terror and the backlash against 'Orientalism', pp. 155-174

      2. Orientalism: a reader - A. L. Macfie 2000

        Book Recommended pp. 285-297

      3. Orientalism and religion: post-colonial theory, India and 'the mystic East' - Richard King, ebrary, Inc 1999 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended

      4. Edward Said - Bill Ashcroft, D. P. S. Ahluwalia 2009 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended

      5. 'Orientalism' and Its Critics - Fred Halliday 1993

        Article Recommended

      6. Islam and the myth of confrontation: religion and politics in the Middle East - Fred Halliday 2003

        Book Recommended Read: Fred Halliday, ‘‘Orientalism’ and Its Critics’,

      7. Orientalism: a reader - A. L. Macfie 2000

        Book Recommended (esp. chapters 5: ‘The Assault on Orientalism’ & 6: ‘Responses to the Assault on Orientalism’).

  3. Postmodernity, postcolonialism and religion 25 items
    Is there a methodology for postcolonial theory? As Spivak asks Can the “subaltern speak”?
    1. Required readings: 7 items
      1. Refashioning futures: criticism after postcoloniality - David Scott, ebrary, Inc c1999 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential (chp. 2, “Religion in Colonial Civil Society”)

      2.  

         

        Also have a look at these two links on postmodernism and post-structuralism:

         

         

         

      3. You can also venture in trying to read Spivak's essay (or summaries of its main argument that you may find online)

      4. Can the subaltern speak? - Gayatri Chakravaty Spivak

        Article Essential

    2. Recommended reading: 18 items
      1. Orientalism and religion: post-colonial theory, India and 'the mystic East' - Richard King, ebrary, Inc 1999 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended Chapter 1

      2. Can the subaltern speak? - Gayatri Chakravaty Spivak

        Article Recommended

      3. Provincializing Europe: postcolonial thought and historical difference - Dipesh Chakrabarty, American Council of Learned Societies c2000 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended

      4. Provincializing Europe: postcolonial thought and historical difference - Dipesh Chakrabarty, ebrary, Inc c2000 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended

      5. Postcolonial theory: a critical introduction - Leela Gandhi 1998 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended

      6. Religion and the secular: historical and colonial formations - Timothy Fitzgerald 2007 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended

      7. The politics of spirit: phenomenology, genealogy, religion - Tim Murphy, ebrary, Inc c2010 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended Chap.2 “Discourse, Text, Philosophemes”, Chap.11 “The Center does not hold”.

      8. The sacred is the profane: the political nature of "religion" - William E. Arnal, Russell T. McCutcheon 2013 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended

      9. Critique of dialectical reason - Jean Paul Sartre, Jonathan Ree, Alan Sheridan 1976

        Book Recommended Book II Chapter VII.5 “Racism and Colonialism as Praxis and Process

  4. Middle East & Islam 1 2 items
    This seminar will look at the colonial “gaze” through, for example, the technology of photography. What kind of representation of women are developed? How did it reverberate on European representations of the self, family, femininity etc?
    1. Required readings: 2 items
      1. The colonial harem - Malek Alloula, American Council of Learned Societies c1986 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential (Read the entire book, there are lots of pictures!)

      2. The colonial harem - Malek Alloula, ebrary, Inc c1986 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential (Read the entire book, there are lots of pictures!)

  5. Middle East & Islam 2 2 items
    Is “homosexuality” a uniquely Western representation of reality? How is “homosexuality” historically situated? What is the relation between colonial representation and the formation of the notion homosexuality?
    1. Required readings: 2 items
      1. Desiring Arabs - Joseph Andoni Massad 2007 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential (p.1-99).

      2. Desiring Arabs - Joseph Andoni Massad, ebrary, Inc 2007 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential (p.1-99).

  6. Middle East & Islam 3 13 items
    This seminar will shed light on the legacy of the colonial state on understanding of religious ‘community’.
    1. Required Reading: 1 item
    2. Recommended Reading: 12 items
      1. Chapter 1 of Islam in liberalism - J. Massad

        Chapter Recommended Digitised under the CLA Digitisation Licence therefore only available to students on module RELU9C5

      2. Before homosexuality in the Arab-Islamic world, 1500-1800 - Khaled El-Rouayheb c2005 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended

      3. Before homosexuality in the Arab-Islamic world, 1500-1800: Khaled El-Rouayheb - Khaled El-Rouayheb, ebrary, Inc c2005 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended

      4. What is Islam?: the importance of being Islamic - Shahab Ahmed 2016

        Book Recommended Chapters 2-4

      5. Formations of the secular: Christianity, Islam, modernity - Talal Asad (2003.) (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended

      6. Genealogies of religion: discipline and reasons of power in Christianity and Islam - Talal Asad c1993

        Book Recommended (esp. the chapter on the Salman Rushdie controversy)

      7. The Qur’an and the Aesthetics of Premodern Arabic Prose - Sarah R. bin Tyeer, SpringerLink (Online service) 2016 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended (esp. chp 10)

      8. Juridical humanity: a colonial history - Samera Esmeir, ebrary, Inc 2012 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended

      9. Ottoman Orientalism. - Ussama Makdisi 2002

        Article Recommended

      10. Representations of Indian Muslims in British colonial discourse - Alex Padamsee 2005 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended (Intro, chp.1 & 2)

  7. Was Hinduism a colonial invention? 10 items
    Was Hinduism a colonial invention? Scholars are split on the question. It is undeniable though that British colonialism significantly transformed the imaginary but also the institutional setting in which Hinduist practices operate. This seminar will look at this question and lay down the myth and realities of modern change.
    1. Required reading: 2 items
    2. Recommended readings: 8 items
      1. Rethinking religion in India: the colonial construction of Hinduism - Esther Bloch, Marianne Keppens, Rajaram Hegde 2010 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended

      2. Guru English: South Asian religion in a cosmopolitan language - Srinivas Aravamudan, ebrary, Inc c2006 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended

      3. Historicizing "tradition" in the study of religion - Steven Engler, Gregory P. Grieve, ebrary, Inc c2005 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended

      4. Unifying Hinduism: philosophy and identity in Indian intellectual history - Andrew J. Nicholson, ebrary, Inc c2010 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended

      5. Hindu Practice

        Book Recommended Read: Elizabeth De Michelis. 2018. The Modern Spirit of Yoga: Idioms and Practices - Currently unavailable

  8. Modern Yoga 10 items
    Yoga is widespread today and it is often either associated with terms such as “secular”, “religion” or “spirituality”. Yoga is also described as “traditional” discipline. What are its origins? Has it undergone modern transformation? How does the colonial encounter shape this transformation?
    1. Required reading: 4 items
      1. A history of modern yoga: Patañjali and Western esotericism - Elizabeth De Michelis 2008

        Book Essential (Chapter 1 and 2)

      2. Spirituality in Modern Society - Peter van der Veer 2009

        Document Recommended

      3. Spirituality in Modern Society. - Peter Van der Veer 2009

        Article Recommended

    2. Recommended readings: 6 items
      1. Hindu Practice

        Book Recommended Read: Elizabeth De Michelis. 2018. The Modern Spirit of Yoga: Idioms and Practices. - Currently unavailable

      2. Yoga body: the origins of modern posture practice - Mark Singleton 2010 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended

      3. Yoga body: the origins of modern posture practice - Mark Singleton, American Council of Learned Societies 2010 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended

      4. New age spirituality: rethinking religion - Ingvild Saelid Gilhus, Steven Sutcliffe 2014 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended

  9. Post Colonialism and Feminism 8 items
    Is there a possible feminism after the postcolonial critique? In this seminar, we explore aspects of women’s condition in non-Western societies, framed by postcolonial politics and categories such as nation, identity, history etc.
    1. Required readings: 3 items
      1. Foucault in Iran: Islamic Revolution after the Enlightenment - Behrooz Ghamari-Tabrizi 2016 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential (chp. 4: The Reign of Terror, Women’s Issues, and Feminist Politics

      2. Politics of piety: the Islamic revival and the feminist subject - Saba Mahmood, American Council of Learned Societies c2005 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential

    2. Recommended reading: 5 items
      1. Introduction, IN: Postcolonial imagination and feminist theology - Kwok Pui-Lan

        Chapter Recommended Digitised under the CLA Digitisation Licence therefore only available to students on module RELU9C5

      2. Islam in liberalism - Joseph Andoni Massad 2016

        Book Recommended Esp. chapter 2

      3. The Spivak reader: selected works of Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak - Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Donna Landry, Gerald M. MacLean 1996

        Book Recommended (chp. 3, Feminism and Critical Theory)

      4. Postcolonial theory: a critical introduction - Leela Gandhi 1998 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended chp 5: Postcolonialism and feminism

      5. Wrapped in the flag of Israel: Mizrahi single mothers and bureaucratic torture - Smadar Lavie 2014

        Book Recommended (Intro, chp1, p. 73-77)

  10. Religion and Capitalism 10 items
    This seminar will look at the relationship between religion and capitalism by exploring the emergence of “spirituality” and “new age” milieu. The discussion will focus on the shifts this has involved in the concepts and terms that we use. With this we will begin to consider a new form of “colonialism” in the form of cultural appropriation.
    1. Main reading 1 item
      1. Selling Spirituality: The Silent Takeover of Religion - Jeremy Carrette, Richard King 2013 (electronic resource)

        Book Essential Chap.3 “Spirituality and the Privatisation of Asian Wisdom”

    2. Secondary reading 9 items
      1. Religion and change in modern Britain 2012

        Book Recommended Harvey, G & Vincett, G. : Alternative Spiritualities: Marginal and Mainstream, pp.156-172

      2. Vernacular religion in everyday life: expressions of belief - Marion Bowman, Ülo Valk 2012

        Book Recommended Rowbottom, A. “Chronic Illness and the negotiation of vernacular religious belief, pp. 93-101

      3. The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism - Max Weber, Stephen Kalberg 2013 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended

      4. Religion, postcolonialism, and globalization: a sourcebook 2015

        Book Recommended Section 2 parts one and two

      5. The protestant ethnic and the spirit of capitalism - Rey Chow c2002 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended

      6. The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism, IN: Religion, postcolonialism, and globalization: a sourcebook - J. Reid

        Chapter Recommended Digitised under the CLA Digitisation Licence therefore only available to students on module RELU9C5

      7. Religion, postcolonialism, and globalization: a sourcebook 2015

        Book Recommended Section 1, part 6 “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism”

      8. Shape-shifting capital: spiritual management, critical theory, and the ethnographic project - George J. Gonzalez (2015) (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended Introduction and Conclusion

      9. Aesthetic capitalism 2014

        Book Recommended Read: Peter Murphy, ‘The Aesthetic Spirit of Modern Capitalism’

  11. Buddhism/East Asian “Religion” 6 items
    Developing the key concepts in the previous week, we will focus on how various Buddhist and East Asian “religious” practices have been rebranded within the spirituality milieu. We will look at the way in which the consumerist market shows a certain colonialist impetus in which “we” do “their” “religion” better.
    1. Required reading: 1 item
    2. Recommended readings: 5 items
      1. Daoism in the twentieth century: between eternity and modernity 2012

        Book Recommended Read: Siegler, E. 2012. “Daoism beyond Modernity: The ‘Healing Tao’ as Postmodern Movement, pp. 274-292

      2. Darsan: seeing the divine image in India - Diana L. Eck 1985

        Book Recommended Afterword “Seeing the Divine Image in America”.

      3. Virtual orientalism: Asian religions and American popular culture - Jane Naomi Iwamura 2011 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended Chap.4 “The Monk Goes Hollywood

      4. Virtual orientalism: Asian religions and American popular culture - Jane Naomi Iwamura, ebrary, Inc 2010 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended Chap.4 “The Monk Goes Hollywood

      5. Understanding chinese religions - Joachim Gentz 2013 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended Chap.1 “What is Chinese Religion?”

  12. Critiques of Post-Colonialism 12 items
    In this seminar, we explore the limits of post-colonial thinking by exploring the question of “man”. Is “man”, or “personhood” a universal category shared by all? By looking at the way scholars of religion have understood “non-ordinary” beings we can see ongoing forms of European colonialism in the way we discuss “man”.
    1. Required reading: 2 items
    2. Recommended readings: 10 items
      1. Vernacular religion in everyday life: expressions of belief - Marion Bowman, Ülo Valk 2012

        Book Recommended Harvey, G. “Things act: Casual indigenous statements about the performance of object-persons, pp. 194-210

      2. “Animism” Revisited - Nurit Bird‐David 1999

        Article Recommended

      3. The future of ritual: writings on culture and performance - Richard Schechner, ebrary, Inc 1993 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended Chap.6 “Wayang kulit in the colonial margin”.

      4. Phenomenology Vol. IV: Expanding Horizons of Phenomenology - D. Moran, L. Embree 2004

        Book Recommended Waldenfels, B. 2004. “Homeworld and Alienworld, pp. 280-291 - Currently unavailable

      5. Postcolonial criticism 2013 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended chapter 4, 5, 8 and

      6. The empire writes back: theory and practice in post-colonial literatures - Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin 2002 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended

  13. BEYOND the READING LIST 1 item
    You are expected to read widely beyond this resource list. Make a start with your subject research guide
    1. Try the subject research guide for the most appropriate resources for your topic.